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 Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II

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samozain
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PostSubject: Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II   Wed 11 Apr 2012, 11:34

Many Egyptologists have long considered two rock reliefs, showing Mentuhotep II towering over smaller figures labeled king "Intef", to be conclusive evidence that his predecessor Intef III was his own father; this is, however, not entirely certain, as these reliefs may have had other propagandistic purposes, and there are other difficulties surrounding Mentuhotep's true origin, and his frequent attempts to claim descent from various gods.



The king seems to have changed his "Horus name" at least twice during his reign - in his 14th year, marking the beginning of his campaign against Herakleopolis Magna to the north; and again in about his 39th, marking the final success of that campaign, and his reunification of all Egypt. His throne name was Nebhepetre, and he was the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years.

In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred. This was probably connected with the conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis.

During his reign, Mentuhotep was able to reunite ancient Egypt for the first time since the 6th dynasty. The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign.

Mentuhotep II also led military campaigns south into Nubia (in his 29th and 31st years), which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period. There is also evidence of military actions against Canaan. The king reorganized the country and placed a vizier at the head of the administration. The viziers of his reign were Bebi and Dagi. His treasurer was Khety who was involved in organising the sed festival for the king. Other important officials were the treasurer Meketre and the overseer of sealers Meru. His general was Intef

Mentuhotep II was buried in a large tomb he had constructed at Deir el-Bahri. Mentuhotep II built temples and chapels at several places in Upper Egypt. These places include Denderah, Abydos, Armant and Gebelein.

Mentuhotep II was considered by his subjects to be divine, or half divine.

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nordmann
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PostSubject: Re: Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II   Wed 11 Apr 2012, 13:07

Hi samozain and welcome to the forum!

Mentuhotep Nebhepetre is a rather enigmatic pharaoh, isn't he? If his reign of 51 years has been calculated correctly then it was indeed an exceptionally long one by the standards of his day and in that context the reunification of the kingdoms probably pales in significance and achievement compared to his feat of holding them together and further integrating them throughout that time. It had not been uncommon prior to him that an ageing pharaoh would face strong political and military challenges from within his kingdom when it was perceived that he was growing old. Mentuhotep seems to have been no exception but somehow not only surmounted these challenges but used his victories to further unite the territories under his control. Without that there probably would never have been any subsequent pan-Egyptian dynasties, at least not in as far as we are familiar with them now.

Even his death was enigmatic. There appears never to have been a sarcophagus and his elaborate tomb seems to have been constructed to house his ka, not his body. It is disappointing that mere members of the public have not access to this tomb - I believe it is one of the more fascinating sites in Egypt and the precursor to so much that was built subsequently.

And yes, I also think the images of him (or his namesake) which survive are accurate. He may have been described as a Theban, but he was black.

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nordmann
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PostSubject: Re: Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II   Wed 11 Apr 2012, 13:43

PS: I have moved this topic to the category "Individuals" since "The History of History" is reserved for historiographical subjects rather than ones concerning specific people.

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samozain
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PostSubject: Re: Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II   Wed 11 Apr 2012, 14:47

nordmann wrote:
PS: I have moved this topic to the category "Individuals" since "The History of History" is reserved for historiographical subjects rather than ones concerning specific people.


thanks nordmann :)
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shivfan
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PostSubject: Re: Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs Mentuhotep II   Tue 24 Apr 2012, 13:39

Which dynasty was Mentuhotep? Was he a part of that dynasty just before the Nubian dynasty? I think the Nubian one was the 17th, but I stand to be corrected....
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