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 On this day in history Round One

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nordmann
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 15 Mar 2014, 09:38

15th March 44BC

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 15 Mar 2014, 10:22

Same day - cleverest political speech ever written. Brando gabbles the lines rather, but Lord, he certainly looks the part:





Charlton Heston version (don't like his toga):


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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sun 16 Mar 2014, 06:57

16 March 1940

Having finished his supper, James Isbister, a 27 year old labourer for Orkney County Council roads department, went to the front door of his cottage in the small village of Bridge of Waithe, "to see what all the noise was about", just as a German bomb fell in the road outside. James thereby earned himself the unwanted distinction of being the first British civilian to be killed by bombing in WW2.

Just why this remote hamlet was bombed is unclear as there were no military or strategic targets anywhere near. Thus poor James’ death was most probably simply due to the Luftwaffe pilot mistaking his position in the failing light.

But it also worth noting that while James was the first civilian killed by bombing, during the first six months of war due to blackout precautions, road fatalities had doubled compared to the corresponding months in 1938 - and pedestrians hit by vehicles comprised the majority of this increase. A surgeon writing in the British Medical Journal, pointed out that by frightening the nation into blackout regulations the Luftwaffe was able to, "kill 600 citizens a month without ever taking to the air and at a cost to itself of exactly nothing".
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 18 Mar 2014, 14:44

18 March 1314, Templar leader Jacques de Molay is executed on the Isle de la Citie in the River Seine, thus providing the inspiration for countless conspiracy novels.




Boccaccio's take on the event.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 20 Mar 2014, 09:07

20 March 1873 - Mrs Mary Ann Cotton of Sunderland, probably one of England’s more prolific, yet least known serial killers, was convicted of murder. I say "probably" as she was convicted for just a single murder, although it’s likely she’d killed at least 17 people, possibly as many as 21. But it's only with the benefit of hindsight that one gets a clearer view of what was actually going on ….

Mrs Cotton had been married four times and three of her husbands, all of whom had taken out life insurance policies, died. The one who survived seems to have done so because he refused to take out insurance. So she left him.  In all ten of her children died, and all of them from what seemed to be the same gastric-related illness. Each must have been a tragic loss but fortunately for Mrs Cotton most were also insured. Her mother, her sister-in-law, and her lover also all died, and in each case she benefited from their life insurance policies. By 1872 aged just 39 years the unfortunate woman had lost an astonishing 16 close friends or family members and had benefitted financially in nearly every case, yet no-one around her voiced any suspicions.

But there was still one family member left - her seven-year-old stepson, Charles, who also had an insurance policy which had been taken out by his, now deceased, father. She openly disliked the boy and complained that looking after him hampered her ability to get work. She tried to get the boy into the local workhouse but they wouldn't have him as she was deemed to be capable of providing for him. Forced to keep him, she told the workhouse manager, Mr Riley, "I won’t be troubled long. He’ll go like all the rest of the Cottons." And indeed young Charles died just five days later. However Riley thought these recent events odd and so he persuaded the doctor to delay writing the death certificate while he contacted the police. They too, once they’d looked into the affair, became suspicious. They eventually thought Cotton must have poisoned the boy and they suspected arsenic.

For a murderer arsenic is almost unrivalled as a poison. It is tasteless, dissolves in hot water and it takes less than a hundredth of an ounce to kill. Yet in the 19th century, sold as a rat poison, it was cheap and easily available. Children would blithely collect it from the shops along with the tea, sugar and flour.

When the police tested Charles’ body they discovered that he had indeed died of a lethal dose of arsenic. Cotton was promptly arrested and duly convicted of his murder. But she was never taken to trial for the mysterious deaths of her mother, three husbands, two friends and 10 other children. 'The Times' correspondent reported on 20 March: "After conviction the wretched woman exhibited strong emotion but this gave place in a few hours to her habitual cold, reserved demeanour". Despite an appeal for clemency to the Home Secretary she was hanged on the 24th March at Durham Gaol.

This case together with a series of other poisonings, both accidental and deliberate, at around the same time did much to ease the passage of the 1868 Pharmacy Act, together with a raft of other legislation in the 1870s and ‘80s designed to control and limit the availability or poisons, whether sold as medicines, household products, or as industrial reagents. So maybe some good did eventually come out of the affair.




EDIT : Sorry ... together with the 'Historical Legal Cases' thread, we seem to be having a surfeit of harrowing judicial murder/execution today. It's never pleasant and perhaps not entirely suitable for the first day of Spring ... I do apologise.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 21 Mar 2014, 08:55

21 March 1963, the US Federal Penitentiary at Alcatraz closes as a prison. It is now a tourist attraction.

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 21 Mar 2014, 13:36

Has the date of Thomas Cranmer's execution really come round again? 21st March 1556.

I wrote at length about it last year (or the year before), so won't babble on this year - just note the anniversary. Dear old Cranmer - my favourite Archbishop of Recanterbury.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 21 Mar 2014, 14:06

Recanterbury  Cheers Cheers 

March 21st 1933, Heinrich Himmler inspects the converted munitions factory in the medieval town of Dachau which he had ordered to be made available for the imprisonment of political enemies of National Socialism - for the good of the country's "calm" as he put it on the day. Delighted with what he sees he announces Germany's first "concentration camp" open for business.

The next day saw the first consignment of these prisoners, to be joined in 1935 by Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals and "un-German" immigrants, then in 1938 by German and Austrian Jews. In 1940 the defeat of Poland saw a huge influx of Polish prisoners until by 1942 the population at the camp on any given day had grown from 600 in 1933 to over 15,000.

Estimates of how many people died in Dachau vary - 32,000 being the conservative estimate most often quoted. On the day of its liberation by US troops in 1945 the death rate from malnutrition and disease alone was around 200 a day.

Hollywood director Billy Wilder was one of the American forces' photographers who documented what the troops found when they first secured entry to the site. Some of this clip, which includes footage from the liberation of Buchenwald, was taken by him.



Less than a month after this the man who had happily declared Dachau open for business was himself dead, cheating justice through suicide by cyanide.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 21 Mar 2014, 14:43

March 21st 1980 - this happened (for US viewers - the rest of the world had to wait a few days)



For the next eight months this question was to happen, and happen, and happen ....



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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 21 Mar 2014, 15:41

to which my response was "WHOGIVESTWORUBS"
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sun 23 Mar 2014, 09:17

March 22 seems to be a day for cultural firsts or achievements:

1774: A collection of English nursery rhymes was published.

1824: The British Parliament votes to purchase 38 paintings to establish a national art gallery. They were the paintings owned by banker Julian Angerstein, for which the British government paid 57,000 pounds. I can't find a list of those first paintings, apart from The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo, and unnamed paintings by Rembrandt, Claude and Van Dyck. They are described as Italian, English, Dutch and Flemish paintings.

1895: Auguste and Louis Lumiere show their first movie in Paris.

1904: The first colour picture appears in a newspaper, the Daily Illustrated Mirror in New York.

and for NZ: 1994: Anna Paquin and Jane Campion win NZ's first Oscars for The Piano.

There were a couple of sporting ones too:

1888: a meeting was held in London to discuss setting up the English Football League.

1913: The world's first electrically operated totalisator is used at Ellerslie race course in Auckland.  (Betting on the TAB is now the only legal way to bet on NZ races and sports and has been since 1949. (I think that is the date))
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Mon 24 Mar 2014, 09:55

The night of the 24/25th March 1944, 76 Allied airmen escape from Stalag Luft III, in what becomes known as "the Great Escape"

http://www.elsham.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/gt_esc/

the film was on Channel 5  last night, and yes I did watch it for the umpteenth time. Why does Gordon Jackson make the same mistake over and over again?
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 25 Mar 2014, 12:03

Happy New Year!

(March 25th or "Lady Day", up to 1752 and the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, traditionally started the year in England and all countries which had derived their calendar from English custom)
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 27 Mar 2014, 14:16

27 March 1977, the worst aviation accident in history when two Boeing 747s collide on the runway at Tenerife.

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 27 Mar 2014, 19:31

Triceratops wrote:
27 March 1977, the worst aviation accident in history when two Boeing 747s collide on the runway at Tenerife.


 Triceratops,

perhaps my English isn't good enough, but I was listening for the item: Whose fault it was. I followed the accident in the time (first time in my life on planes in that time Wink ) and thought it was the KLM commander who was at fault...after some years of investigation...I didn't hear that immediately in your video...
Found a website from pilotes (I suppose) which confirmed that the KLM commander Van Zanten was the one who did the mistake...
http://www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/tech_ops/read.main/264001/

Kind regards and with esteem,

Paul.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 28 Mar 2014, 08:31

March 28th 1854 - After a period of Russia using the pretext of "protecting its Orthodox faith believers" to prosecute an expansionist policy in the Black Sea area, Britain and France finally declare war on the country on this day in 1854. Control of the Crimean peninsula became its focus.

Sound familiar?
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 28 Mar 2014, 08:55

Paul, from what I made of the transmissions, the KLM pilot thought the runway was clear when the PanAm plane was still taxiing.

28th March 1933, another aviation incident, which took place at Diksmuide in Belgium, believed to be the first instance of sabotage of an airliner;

http://airplanereports.com/2013/08/25/imperial-airways-diksmuide-belgium-1933/
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 28 Mar 2014, 09:06

nordmann wrote:
March 28th 1854 - After a period of Russia using the pretext of "protecting its Orthodox faith believers" to prosecute an expansionist policy in the Black Sea area, Britain and France finally declare war on the country on this day in 1854. Control of the Crimean peninsula became its focus.

Sound familiar?


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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 29 Mar 2014, 05:40

28th March, 1881: PT Barnum and JA Bailey agree to join forces to create the world's biggest circus.  American circuses apparently still use large animals, but the circus thing we went to recently at the Dunedin Fringe Festival didn't bother with such encumbrances.  They just did some wonderful acrobatic gymnastic type of actions in a light comedy style and with very supple movements (one young woman did complete splits and then put her shoe on one extended leg and did up its laces, then did the same with the other leg).  But no elephants, or tigers, or even worms.

It would have been best if I hadn't read any further in the list of events for the day.  Now see that in 1900 Maori protested about the exclusion of Maori men from serving in the Boer War, though Maori nurses were permitted.  And - shame of shames - in 1955 England beat NZ in a cricket test.  Not by a nice competitive score but because we scored just 26 in the second innings.  The top scorer did get into double figures.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 29 Mar 2014, 07:51

29th March 1461.

The bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil - at Towton in Yorkshire. The weather conditions were appalling - bitter winds and swirling, blinding snow. However, the blizzard that raged that terrible Palm Sunday (for Palm Sunday it was) was fighting on the Yorkist side. At the end of the day around 28,000 men lay dead or dying in the snow, and Edward of York, Earl of March, was confirmed as King of England. Henry VI, his wife and his son were forced to flee over the border to seek refuge in Scotland.

Excellent short film here made by the University of Bradford. This is proper history, I think.



PS Shakespeare wrote a few scenes set at the battle - see Henry VI Part 3, Act II.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 29 Mar 2014, 08:08

28,000 from a population in England of about 3 million (wiki's figure). That's 1% of the entire population killed in one day. I realise the demographics have changed between then and now but 1% of the population is equivalent to half a million English men being wiped out from today's population. 

That was a very bloody battle indeed!
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 29 Mar 2014, 20:53

Triceratops wrote:
Paul, from what I made of the transmissions, the KLM pilot thought the runway was clear when the PanAm plane was still taxiing.

28th March 1933, another aviation incident, which took place at Diksmuide in Belgium, believed to be the first instance of sabotage of an airliner;

http://airplanereports.com/2013/08/25/imperial-airways-diksmuide-belgium-1933/

Thank you Triceratops for the immediate reply.
I did some more research for the Diksmuide disaster, but essentialy found not more than already said in your article.

Kind regards and with esteem, Paul.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 01 Apr 2014, 13:11

1st April (April Fool's Day) 1957



The one that got everybody ...
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 01 Apr 2014, 14:03

Ah, the Voice of Authority, you see. Sound like the BBC and they'll believe anything you tell 'em.  

You should have done something similar on the Richard III remains, nordmann - sadly too late now, as it's past noon.  Smile
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 01 Apr 2014, 14:37

It's past noon in the UK but we can still get the yanks ...

One that wasn't an April Fool's joke but in a sane world would have been - on this day in 1989 Margaret Thatcher's Poll Tax replaces the old local rates system in Scotland. This gave rise to protests, riots and Tommy Sheridan, more or less in that order.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Mon 07 Apr 2014, 13:47

7th April 1945, the Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk by US carrier planes;

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Wed 09 Apr 2014, 11:30

9th April 1483.

Death of Edward IV - caused a few problems, but also lots of interesting stories and TV programmes. English history was never the same again.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Wed 09 Apr 2014, 14:01

Temperance wrote:
9th April 1483.

English history was never the same again.
Dead right it wasn't - successive generations of historians, real and self-appointed, have been re-writing it ever since.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 10 Apr 2014, 09:58

April 10th 1912 - the Titanic leaves Southampton Dock on the second stage of its ill-fated cross-Atlantic voyage. There is to be one more stop, at Queenstown (present day Cobh) in Ireland, before she sails at full throttle into some unwelcome ice.

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 12 Apr 2014, 12:20

Two little pieces of NZ wartime history for 12th April:

1902: Sixteen NZ soldiers were killed in a train crash in South Africa during the English war against Boer South Africans.  [I have never read about this before.]

1913: HMS New Zealand, a battlecruiser funded as gift from NZ to Britain, arrives in New Zealand as part of a round the world (British dominions) trip.  http://www.hmsnewzealand.com/1913/04/12 

She was part of the British Navy's contingent in WWI and fought at Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank and Jutland. She was hit by enemy fire just once and sustained no casualties and was thought of as a lucky ship, put down to her captain wearing a Maori piupiu (skirt) and heitiki pendant during battle.  I think I'd want my legs covered in battle.  Tiki are meant to be good luck, and cheap imitations are sold as souvenirs, though not approved of by Maori. HMS New Zealand was broken up for scrap in 1922 which doesn't seem a very good reward for her work.  Something to do with tonnage limits in a disarmament treaty.  I might have thought they could have found older ships.

And in 1606 Great Britain adopts the Union Jack. Here in Aotearoa we are trying to get rid of it from our flag.  Much debate and little consensus so far.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 12 Apr 2014, 12:56

Caro wrote:
And in 1606 Great Britain adopts the Union Jack. Here in Aotearoa we are trying to get rid of it from our flag.  Much debate and little consensus so far.

Great Britain didn't exist as a state until 1707 although that flag was indeed designed a hundred years earlier. The 'Union Jack' in the NZ flag is not the 1707 design. It's the 1801 design. Many people in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland are also seeking to get rid of it.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 12 Apr 2014, 21:01

Who adopted it in 1606, then, Vizzer? England? Or was it just a design waiting for a country till 1707? Or 1801?
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 12 Apr 2014, 21:07

It was James VI / I who adopted this flag as symbol of the union of the crowns, not of the union of the nations. You will note that it isn't the same as the later flag - no St Patrick's saltire on it.

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sun 13 Apr 2014, 07:23

Gil has basically covered it Caro. It was indeed a design waiting for a state. Although King James did style himself 'King of Great Britain' that title was never sanctioned by either the Scottish Parliament or the English Parliament. It was only after the Treaty of Union in 1706 that Queen Anne became the first Queen of Great Britain.

With regard to the use of the 1606 flag then this is not clear. I've yet to see a contemporary painting of a ship of the Royal Scots Navy or a ship of the English Royal Navy from the 17th Century which depicts the Union Jack.

Talking about the Union - today (13th April) is the anniversary of Catholic Emancipation in Great Britain & Ireland. The passage of the Catholic Relief Act (1829) allowed Roman Catholics to take seats in Parliament. Paradoxically it also disenfranchised many poorer catholics and poorer protestants particularly in Ireland. Brought in by King George IV and Prime Minister Wellington it probably came 29 years and a generation too late to save the UK in the eyes of the Irish catholic middle class. Had it accompanied the 1800 Act of Union (as had been envisioned by the architects of that measure Prime Minister Pitt the Younger and Chief Secretary for Ireland Viscount Castlereagh) then the story of the UK may well have been very different.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Mon 14 Apr 2014, 09:38

14 April 1865, while attending a musical comedy entitled Our American Cousin , US President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln dies the following morning.

Ford's Theatre;
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 15 Apr 2014, 06:41

15th April 1912
The Titanic sinks after hitting an iceberg - or was it really the Titanic at all?

http://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/9648097._I_can_prove_it_was_not_Titanic_that_sank_/
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 15 Apr 2014, 08:19

Thursday, 15th April 1802 - from the journal of Dorothy Wordsworth;

We got over into a field to avoid some cows—people working, a few primroses by the roadside, woodsorrel flower, the anemone, scentless violets, strawberries, and that starry yellow flower which Mrs C. calls pile wort. When we were in the woods beyond Gowbarrow park we saw a few daffodils close to the water side. We fancied that the lake had floated the seeds ashore and that the little colony had so sprung up. But as we went along there were more and yet more and at last under the boughs of the trees, we saw that there was a long belt of them along the shore, about the breadth of a country turnpike road. I never saw daffodils so beautiful they grew among the mossy stones about and about them, some rested their heads upon these stones as on a pillow for weariness and the rest tossed and reeled and danced and seemed as if they verily laughed with the wind that blew upon them over the lake, they looked so gay ever glancing ever changing. This wind blew directly over the lake to them. There was here and there a little knot and a few stragglers a few yards higher up but they were so few as not to disturb the simplicity and unity and life of that one busy highway. We rested again and again.

Brother Willie, unashamedly paraphrasing whole sections from his sister's diary, later turned the account into a snappy little poem which he then published in his second book of poetry, an instant bestseller. One critic however by the name of Lord Byron was not impressed with the result, saying "Mr. W ceases to please, ... clothing [his ideas] in language not simple, but puerile". I agree with the 6th Baron Byron, but I still like it.

Incidentally, Dorothy's journal entry for the day ends on a delightfully cryptic note regarding "Mary" and an equally delightful observation regarding the deer she'd seen earlier. It's an awful pity William didn't think to expand it into another puerile poem:

We had a glass of warm rum and water. We enjoyed ourselves and wished for Mary. It rained and blew when we went to bed. N.B. Deer in Gowbarrow park like skeletons.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 15 Apr 2014, 10:38

Going by the timings of the other plants she mentions as just coming into flower and the 'rocky' terrain that she describes,  I'd say that the, "starry yellow flower which Mrs C. calls pile wort", is Greater Celandine. When broken, the stems exude a very astringent latex, which can be used to cauterize small wounds like cut facial moles that refuse to stop bleeding....  and so hence also probably the unglamourous moniker, pile-wort.

It's not to be confused with Lesser Celandine, a very much smaller, less showy, and earlier flowering plant, yet a more reliable herald of spring ... ( and one very dear to my own heart  - my father loved them and by luck they now grow in profusion all over his grave). They were I think well known, yet as is commonly the case with tiny understated flowers, they remained unremarked by Mr Wordsworth, until he described them thus:

".... have seen thee, high and low,
Thirty years or more, and yet
T'was a face I did not know."

Lesser Celandine is sometimes called 'eye-bright' (as are several other starry- or daisy-like flowers) and supposedly an eye-wash of the petals would give clearer vision. Maybe. But never try that with Greater Celandine. As said, the latex of Greater Celendine will cauterize wounds, moles and warts, so if administered as an eye-wash will probably cause conjunctivitis if not permanent scarring!
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 15 Apr 2014, 13:50

Gilgamesh of Uruk wrote:
15th April 1912
The Titanic sinks after hitting an iceberg - or was it really the Titanic at all?

http://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/9648097._I_can_prove_it_was_not_Titanic_that_sank_/

I've read one of Gardiner's books "Titanic; the ship that never sank?". In that one, he severely criticises Lightoller and other generally perceived heroes of the sinking.

25 years ago today, the Hillsborough Disaster;

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nordmann
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Tue 15 Apr 2014, 17:38

RIP all 96. A day that changed so many lives.
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Caro
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Wed 16 Apr 2014, 01:59

We've just had a long story about this on our lunchtime Worldwatch programme on New Zealand's national radio.  Some of the history of the event, some about the changes in football control since then, and a woman talking who had lost her husband that day.  (Followed by a smaller item about the Boston Marathon killings, and now Oscar Pistorius's trials.)

Some of these large tragedies have a wider effect that others. What is just referred to here as Pike River (where 29 men died when the mine exploded) has had huge and constant coverage in a country where people usually get bored with news quite quickly. And a large impact on safety regulations here in mines at least.  Not getting the men back has been some of the impetus, the way the controversy and lies over who and what had caused the Hillsborough disaster has kept that in the news and in the courts.
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Caro
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Wed 16 Apr 2014, 11:25

April 15: The Titanic reached its nemesis today.

But two little NZ items that interested me.

1868: The first Maori representatives to the New Zealand Parliament were elected unopposed.  They were Frederick Nene Russell and Tareha Te Moananui, names that perhaps should be better known than they are. It seems quite early to have native people elected to Parliament, but there were 4 seats set aside specifically for Maori voters.  (There still are Maori seats, but now there are seven.)

and in 1848 the Philip Laing arrived at Port Chalmers the port near present-day Dunedin with Scottish Free Church people alighting.  The area has retained a Scottish feel, and I suppose I am only here today because this ship arrived.  I presume my families came to this area because they were Scottish and so was it.
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Triceratops
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Wed 16 Apr 2014, 11:50

16 April, 73
One of the most remarkable sieges in history reaches its' conclusion when the surviving defenders of the Jewish fortress at Masada commit mass suicide in the face of an imminent Roman breakthrough;

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masada

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Triceratops
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 17 Apr 2014, 13:07

17 April 1961, the CIA backed invasion of Cuba is launched. After 2 days it proves to be a complete failure.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion
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Gilgamesh of Uruk
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 17 Apr 2014, 17:37

April 17th, 1949 (Easter Sunday) - a great gift is given to the world!


Happy Birthday to me .....
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Caro
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 17 Apr 2014, 22:01

Is that retirement age (ie money-handed-out-to-you age) in Britain, Gil?  It is in NZ and at the end of the year Malcolm and I will have our gold cards!  After a lot of palaver, I gather - probably more for him than me, since my husband isn't a NZ citizen, but only a permanent resident.  You seem to have to prove who you are - you never have to prove who you are to pay taxes, I note.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Thu 17 Apr 2014, 23:34

Currently so for men, Caro, women used to get their pensions at 60, in the process of rising to 65, (The Gaffer will receive hers just short of 63), but it is then to rise for both to 68 over a period. The Monsters are just about keeping up with it, each time they have a birthday Osborne raises it a year (I'm sure Ozzy could do a better job, BTW). I got one of my works pensions at 60, one (a munificent 2.72 per annum) has just been bought out by the provider, another works one starts now, as do my State & State 2nd pensions, and my SERPS replacement pension, but the last one (from when I was self-employed) isn't due to be paid till my 70th birthday. I'm planning to talk the Monsters through what stops with me, what carries on for The Gaffer, and what goes on for a defined period - just in case.
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Caro
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Fri 18 Apr 2014, 01:33

Both men and women receive their superannuation at 65, and that's been the case for a while now.  The government should put it up to 67 but the present PM has vowed not to in his term of government.  There used to be a widow's benefit at 55 but I think that has been phased out.  My husband was eligible for a government-super fund after 40 years of teaching, and there are various ways to take that.  I remember when he must have been about 57 telling me that if anything happened to him, I was to tough it out for another three years till I would get it (or half of it or whatever).  He told me to scrounge off the kids and do whatever I needed to but not to take the bit of super I would get then.  Must have been important for him to suggest that we were not immortal.  

That fund has been stopped now - no wonder younger people moan about the baby boomers.  They expect to get no superannuation at all.  I think they are wrong.
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Sat 19 Apr 2014, 05:03

April 18th 1864, the combined Prussian and Austrian forces following an artillery barrage attacked the Danish forces at Dybbøl – German: Düppel – and through victory here ended the 2nd Scleswig War.
The war started in November 1863, when the then ministry forced the newly appointed King Christian IX [Note 1] to sign a new Constitution which formalized Schleswig and Holstein as parts of Denmark.
The War in 1864 was a brief one – it only lasted a few months but the Danish defeat did for almost all of the years until now cast a deep shadow over the picture of Denmark, creating the picture of a miniature state without any importance.

The following is an extract and translation from a site on an exhibition on that occasion.
The above picture is being challenged by a present exhibition on the ‘Tøjhusmuseum’”1864 – Afslutning og begyndelse” – The Museum of the Armoury – “1864 – The end and the beginning” (in Copenhagen), and was opened on February 6th on the anniversary of the withdrawal of Danish troops from the Dannevirke – the traditional bordering wall between Schleswig and Holstein – German and Danish influence, along the river Schlei, which was built, rebuilt, and built upon from at least C9.
This exhibition wishes to question the general idea of the war in 1864 as meaningless, and of Denmark as being un-important.
The defeat in 1864 was later explained as the culmination of a very long process, where Denmark through “300 years of planned military defeats”, including the loss of Norway in 1814, was reduced to a very minor player on the European. This conception of the defeat has been very much on the relationships of Denmark towards foreign nations ‘till recently.
The exhibition is concentrating in six exhibition cases six chapters on the war and its aftermath.
The tale starts with the victorious troops following the First Schleswig War 1848 – 1851, and the then national ideals of peoples and ‘Fatherland’, as well as the wish of a national state, thus leading through the times until the war with the major powers of Prussia and Austria in 1864.
We watch the retreating Danish soldiers from the Dannevirke, in the heavy cold while the general was transported in a carriage, which is part of the exhibition. We see the soldiers at the bloodbath on Dybbøl and the decisive battle on the isle of Als  or, using a current term at ‘slaughterhouse Dybbøl’.
The exhibition might end here, but the Tøjjhusmuseum chose to dedicate half of the exhibition to the time following the defeat and ‘till current times.
Pacifist neutrality policy was term of what was left of Danish politics, as 40 % of the country was lost!
Political paroles and terms like “What’s the use of having a military?” and “What’s lost on the outside must be won on the inside” leading to many heaths and moors being turned into valuable agrarian country.
The exhibition let us see the following fortifications of Copenhagen, which, seen in the spectacles of the Tøjhusmuseum,is best understood as a continuation of the war of 1864. The ideas of a ‘tiny and un-important little country’ the exhibition tells of a Denmark and the choices and elections of Denmark up until, during and following WWII, the Cold War until the Fall of the Wall.
The last part of the exhibition is showing the times from 1989 until the present, with Denmark actively involved in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq.
The question raised is, whether the shadows of 1864 haven’t been dealt with until now, finishes the curator of the exhibition, and passes it on to the viewers.

Here is the description of yet another exhibition, “Schleswig-Holstein: Turmoil on the Danish-German Border”, remembering the 150th anniversary of that war.
This exhibition is putting weight on the regional history from the mid C19 until the Re-unification in 1920.
The repercussions of the Schleswegian Wars led to much emigration from these parts, many of whom settling in the US of A, where especially the Midwest was popular, still showing in place names like Schleswig and Holstein in Iowa.
This exhibition also includes selected stories of immigrants from the region, their motives, and what their lives as American immigrants entailed.

This exhibition is a co-operation between the Museum of Danish America and the German American Heritage Center, both in Iowa, USA.

Note 1: The previous king, Frederick VI, was the last of the main line of the House of Oldenburg, and the one who on June 5th 1849 signed a – relatively – free Constitution and thus did away with Absolutism in Denmark.
When it became obvious that Frederick VII, even though married three times and divorced twice, wasn’t going to have any lawfully begotten heirs a compromise was reached and at a conference in London in 1848, settled the kingship on a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg, the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck, whose head Duke Wilhelm in 1825 was granted a resurrected Duchy of Glücksburg – with some estate to his hitherto rather moneyless existence. He was an agnatic (male line) descendant of King Christian III (1503 - 59), and his third son Prince Christian was selected and raised as a Danish officer by the king Frederick VI (1768 - 1839), who had no sons himself, and whose cousin and heir was Christian VIII (1786 - 1848), and whose sole son and heir was aforementioned Frederick VII.


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Triceratops
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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Mon 21 Apr 2014, 10:12

21 April 1918, the most famous aviator of WW1, Manfred von Richtofen aka The Red Baron, is shot down and killed near the Somme river.

A short video made up of newsreel about von Richtofen, one sequence shows him preparing and taking of in his Fokker DrI and another examining a Sopwith Pup he shot down on 3 September 1917 along with the captured pilot, Lt Algernon Bird, and in the flying suit, Anthony Fokker.

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PostSubject: Re: On this day in history Round One   Mon 21 Apr 2014, 17:57

Triceratops,

thank you for the filmreel about von Richthofen.

Coincidentally I saw on ARTE? a documentary, where it was researched that it was not a pilot who shot von Richthofen, but a soldier from the ground...
In fact Sergeant C. B. Popkin of the 24th Australian Machine Gun Company...
Did a quick research and found this:
Who killed von Richthofen?
http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo4/no1/who-qui-eng.asp
And en plus I was so lucky to find again the original documentary in English (Australian English? Wink )...








It's all at the end of the documentary and it is a good example how history writing is never complete and that every day one can find new events that alter the story of before....


Kind regards and with esteem,

Paul.
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